cos 1/2

Inverse cosine is an important inverse trigonometric function. Mathematically, it is written as cos-1(x) and is the inverse function of the trigonometric function cosine, cos(x). An important thing to lớn note is that inverse cosine is not the reciprocal of cos x. There are 6 inverse trigonometric functions as sin-1x, cos-1x, tan-1x, csc-1x, sec-1x, cot-1x.

Inverse cosine is used to lớn determine the measure of angle using the value of the trigonometric ratio cos x. In this article, we will understand the formulas of the inverse cosine function, its domain name and range, and hence, its graph. We will also determine the derivative and integral of cos inverse x to lớn understand its properties better.

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1. What is Inverse Cosine?
2. Domain and Range of Inverse Cosine
3. Graph of Inverse Cosine
4. Derivative of Cos Inverse x
5. Integral of Inverse Cosine
6. Properties of Inverse Cosine
7. FAQs on Inverse Cosine

What is Inverse Cosine?

Inverse cosine is the inverse function of the cosine function. It is one of the important inverse trigonometric functions. Cos inverse x can also be written as arccos x. If y = cos x ⇒ x = cos-1(y). Let us consider a few examples to lớn see how the inverse cosine function works.

  • cos 0 = 1 ⇒ 0 = cos-1 (1)
  • cos π/3 = một nửa ⇒ π/3 = cos-1 (1/2)
  • cos π/2 = 0 ⇒ π/2 = cos-1 (0)
  • cos π = -1 ⇒ π = cos-1 (-1)

In a right-angled triangle, the cosine of an angle (θ) is the ratio of its adjacent side to lớn the hypotenuse, that is, cos θ = (adjacent side) / (hypotenuse). Using the definition of inverse cosine, θ = cos-1[ (adjacent side) / (hypotenuse) ].

Inverse Cosine

Thus, the inverse cosine is used to lớn find the unknown angles in a right-angled triangle.

Domain and Range of Inverse Cosine

We know that the domain name of the cosine function is R, that is, all real numbers and its range is [-1, 1]. A function f(x) has an inverse if and only if it is bijective(one-one and onto). Since cos x is not a bijective function as it is not one-one, the inverse cosine cannot have R as its range. Hence, we need to lớn make the cosine function one-one by restricting its domain name. The domain name of the cosine function can be restricted to lớn [0, π], [π, 2π], [-π, 0], etc. and get a corresponding branch of inverse cosine.

The domain name of cosine function is restricted to lớn [0, π] usually and its range remains as [-1, 1]. Hence, the branch of cos inverse x with the range [0, π] is called the principal branch. Since the domain name and range of a function become the range and domain name of its inverse function, respectively, the domain name of the inverse cosine is [-1, 1] and its range is [0, π], that is, cos inverse x is a function from [-1, 1] → [0, π].

Graph of Inverse Cosine

Since the domain name and range of the inverse cosine function are [-1, 1] and [0, π], respectively, we will plot the graph of cos inverse x within the principal branch. As we know the values of the cosine function for specific angles, we will use the same values to lớn plot the points and hence the graph of inverse cosine. For nó = cos-1x, we have:

  • When x = 0, nó = π/2
  • When x = một nửa, nó = π/3
  • When x = 1, nó = 0
  • When x = -1, nó = π
  • When x = -1/2, nó = 2π/3

Inverse Cosine Graph

Cos Inverse x Derivative

Now, we will determine the derivative of inverse cosine function using some trigonometric formulas and identities. Assume nó = cos-1x ⇒ cos nó = x. Differentiate both sides of the equation cos nó = x with respect to lớn x using the chain rule.

cos nó = x

⇒ d(cos y)/dx = dx/dx

⇒ -sin nó dy/dx = 1

⇒ dy/dx = -1/sin nó ---- (1)

Since cos2y + sin2y = 1, we have sin nó = √(1 - cos2y) = √(1 - x2) [Because cos nó = x]

Substituting sin nó = √(1 - x2) in (1), we have

dy/dx = -1/√(1 - x2)

Since x = -1, 1 makes the denominator √(1 - x2) equal to lớn 0, and hence the derivative is not defined, therefore x cannot be -1 and 1.

Hence the derivative of cos inverse x is -1/√(1 - x2), where -1 < x < 1

Inverse Cosine Integration

We will find the integral of inverse cosine, that is, ∫cos-1x dx using the integration by parts (ILATE).

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∫cos-1x = ∫cos-1x · 1 dx

Using integration by parts,

∫f(x) . g(x) dx = f(x) ∫g(x) dx − ∫(f′(x) ∫g(x) dx) dx + C

Here f(x) = cos-1x and g(x) = 1.

∫cos-1x · 1 dx = cos-1x ∫1 dx - ∫ [d(cos-1x)/dx ∫1 dx]dx + C

∫cos-1x dx = cos-1x . (x) - ∫ [-1/√(1 - x²)] x dx + C

We will evaluate this integral ∫ [-1/√(1 - x²)] x dx using substitution method. Assume 1-x2 = u. Then -2x dx = du (or) x dx = -1/2 du.

∫cos-1x dx = x cos-1x - ∫(-1/√u) (-1/2) du + C

= x cos-1x - một nửa ∫u-1/2 du + C

= x cos-1x - (1/2) (u1/2/(1/2)) + C

= x cos-1x - √u + C

= x cos-1x - √(1 - x²) + C

Therefore, ∫cos-1x dx = x cos-1x - √(1 - x²) + C

Properties of Inverse Cosine

Some of the properties or formulas of inverse cosine function are given below. These are very helpful in solving the problems related to lớn cos inverse x in trigonometry.

  • cos(cos-1x) = x only when x ∈ [-1, 1] (When x ∉ [-1, 1], cos(cos-1x) is NOT defined)
  • cos-1(cos x) = x, only when x ∈ [0, π] (When x ∉ [0, π], apply the trigonometric identities to lớn find the equivalent angle of x that lies in [0, π])
  • cos-1(-x) = π - cos-1x
  • cos-1(1/x) = sec-1x, when |x| ≥ 1
  • sin-1x + cos-1x = π/2, when x ∈ [-1, 1]
  • d(cos-1x)/dx = -1/√(1 - x2), -1 < x < 1
  • ∫cos-1x dx = x cos-1x - √(1 - x²) + C

Important Notes on Cos Inverse x

  • Invere cosine is NOT the same as (cos x)-1 as (cos x)-1 = 1/(cos x) = sec x.
  • θ = cos-1[ (adjacent side) / (hypotenuse) ], θ ∈ [0, π]
  • d(cos-1x)/dx = -1/√(1 - x2), -1 < x < 1
  • ∫cos-1x dx = x cos-1x - √(1 - x²) + C
  • cos-1(-x) = π - cos-1x

Related Topics on Inverse Cosine

  • sin cos tan
  • Trigonometric Functions
  • Law of Sines
  • Trigonometric Chart

FAQs on Inverse Cosine

What is Inverse Cosine in Trigonometry?

Inverse cosine is the inverse of the cosine function. Inverse cosine of x can also be written as cos-1x or arccos x. Then by the definition of inverse cosine, θ = cos-1[ (adjacent side) / (hypotenuse) ].

What is Inverse Cosine Formula?

By the definition of inverse cosine, θ = cos-1[ (adjacent side) / (hypotenuse) ]. Here θ is the angle between the adjacent side and the hypotenuse and lies between 0 and π.

What is the Derivative of Inverse Cosine?

The derivative of cos inverse x is -1/√(1 - x2), where -1 < x < 1. It can be calculated using the chain rule.

What is the Domain and Range of Inverse Cosine?

The domain name of the inverse cosine is [-1, 1] because the range of the cosine function is [-1, 1]. The range of cos inverse x, cos-1x is [0, π]. We need to lớn make the cosine function one-one by restricting its domain name R to lớn the principal branch [0, π] which makes the range of the inverse cosine as [0, π].

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How to lớn Calculate Integral of Inverse Cosine?

The integral of cos inverse x can be calculated using integration by parts. Integral of inverse cosine is given by ∫cos-1x dx = x cos-1x - √(1 - x²) + C

What Is Cos of Cos Inverse x?

Cos of cos inverse x is x, that is, cos(cos-1x) = x if x ∈ [-1, 1]. If x ∉ [-1, 1] then cos(cos-1x) is not defined.

What Is the Inverse Cosine of Cos x?

Inverse cosine of cos x is x, that is, cos-1(cos x) = x, if x ∈ [0, π]. If x ∉ [0, π] then apply trigonometric identities to lớn find the equivalent angle of x that lies in [0, π].